Setting up a database is a relatively straightforward process (Heroku has an add-on for that), but getting it to run well in production is sometimes another matter. As your application grows and your data grows along with it, you will likely find a number of performance bottlenecks specifically related to your database, and this post aims to help you diagnose and address those issues when they arise.

As with all components of your infrastructure it’s important to have early visibility into the performance characteristics of your database. Watching this data as your application grows will give you a much better chance of spotting performance issues and regressions as they’re introduced.

I...


Heroku has many public API endpoints. Each of these endpoints needs to be tested so that we know how they work, and documented so that our customers (and other API consumers) know how they work. Follow along, and we’ll learn how Heroku uses JSON Schema to test and document our Platform API – and how it helped us uncover an unexpected bug, rooted in the way the Oj gem parses Big Decimals.

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JSON Schema files are like blueprints that define the structure and semantics of other JSON documents. When a JSON Schema file is applied to a JSON document, you can determine whether the document is valid (conforms to the schema) or is invalid (does not conform to the schema).

So how do we at Heroku use...


When we open-sourced buildpacks nearly seven years ago, we knew they would simplify the application deployment process. After a developer runs git push heroku master, a buildpack ensures the application's dependencies and compilation steps are taken care of as part of the deploy.

As previously announced, we've taken the same philosophies that made buildpacks so successful and applied them towards creating Cloud Native Buildpacks (CNB), a standard for turning source code into Docker images without the need for Dockerfiles. In this post, we'll take a look at how CNBs work, how they aim to solve many of the problems with that exist with Dockerfile, and how you can use them with...


There’s obviously more to security than humans, technology, and vendors with all of their implementations and expertise. At Heroku we believe that security is a byproduct of excellence in engineering.

All too often, software is written solely with the happy path in mind, and security assurances of that software has its own dangerous assumptions. A mature security program should challenge assumptions of security controls, move to testing continuously, and prepare for the unexpectable.

This means asking hard questions about the bigger picture. Think bigger than the development lifecycle, backing away from the fixations of confirming effective corrections and remediations. This means taking...


This blog post is adapted from a talk given by Amy Unger at RailsConf 2018 titled "Knobs, buttons & switches: Operating your application at scale."

We've all seen applications that keel over when a single, upstream service goes down. Despite our best intentions, sometimes an unexpected outage has us scrambling to make repairs. In this blog post, we'll take a look at some tools you can integrate into your application before disaster strikes. We'll talk about seven strategies that can help you shed load, fail gracefully, and protect struggling services. We'll also talk about the technical implementations of these techniques—particularly in Ruby, though the...


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